New Homestead Developments!
As of this morning, July 21st, I have a total of 4 quail eggs. Produced by my in-house Coturnix!
Apparently I have at least two or three females and at least one male. There are seven mature birds of this species here. I am not good at sexing Coturnix quail yet – and these quail are of different coloration patterns to begin with.
I found the first three on Sunday (the 19th), and like chickens, quail don’t lay more than once a day. However it is possible I missed a lay that may have happened the day before – I wasn’t really paying attention to them that day, and it was a small egg I noticed when I changed their bedding Sunday, blending into their old bedding. I found the fourth just now this morning. And yesterday morning, I saw mating behavior.
For the first 3-4 weeks, assuming a continual good supply of eggs, I plan on eating. After that, I am planning to incubate and hatch these future quail. I am not confident that the initial run of eggs would be fertile or thriving.
How Quail Differ from Chickens – Besides Size!
When I discuss quail, I am only referring to Coturnix quail. Here in Massachusetts, only Coturnix and button quail are legal to own and raise without a permit. All other species are native to the US, and thus Massachusetts notes that permitting is needed. Other state requirements may vary so check yours. And other countries may have other requirements, or no restrictions at all.
Quail and chicken share the same scientific lineage classification, down through order (Galliformes) and family (Phasianidae). This family also includes pheasants, peafowl, ptarmigan, (and some classifiers also include turkey, and guineas). The family consists of heavy, ground feeding birds, and includes a wealth of “game” birds.
Next in the order of classification: Chickens are in the genus Gallus (contains 4 living species, all considered Asian junglefowl; my quail are in the genus Coturnix, which covers 6 species of still-extant quail. (Some of the information in these past two paragraphs came from Wikipedia.)
Button quail are super-tiny, and are not really of interest for raising unless one is a dedicated hobbyist. My plans are for meat, eggs, and the propagation of future generations.
Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are domesticated. You can even make some of them your friends – which is to some strong level, but not completely, breed-dependent. They descend from the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), a southeast Asian bird. Quail (Coturnix japonica) are not domesticated. Although I have found a few online posts about be-friended quail, don’t go into raising these expecting to develop some pets. However, being small, they are easy to care for (once they get past the first couple weeks of life). There are a number of different breed of Japanese quail, and my batch contains a hybrid mix of several of these. No, I don’t know which is which, and besides this will express phenotype (how they appear) as opposed to true genetic genotypes.
Chickens and quail can eat the same feed. When these quail were babies, I used a dedicated grain-coffee-grinder to chew up their food for them, not to a fine powder, but to something more suitable for their baby beaks to take up. I used (chicken) chick starter feed.
You can get day-old chicken chicks to order via hatcheries with a minimum of a 3-bird order, depending on hatchery and where you are located (they take into account likely weather, and distance from hatchery) – I had a 7-minimum order). Day-old quail from hatcheries require a minimum of 25 babies, or in most cases, a minimum order of 50. Really? I can’t do that, but if you are able to, pool with your neighbors who might desire to raise them as well! At any rate, I got my day-old’s from a local quail breeder, and I could specify a LOT less than a hatchery can safely ship (that’s why hatcheries do it… body warmth keeps them alive during the USPS shipment timeframe here in the US. – well, as long as we actually HAVE a United States Postal Service here.)
Baby quail are less hardy (by far) than baby chickens. I’ll talk about that in some future blog post. Just one word to the wise: Don’t go down in the middle of the night to replace water in a shallow dish without wearing glasses, should you be myopic. I set the dish back down on a young’un because with my blurred vision, it faded into the background of pine chips. This one was dead when I went back down in the morning. NOTE, I have discovered, for future quail-rearing expeditions, that you CAN buy young quail waterers that you can fill up so you don’t have to stumble downstairs overnight just to hydrate your babies. Or to put what you scrounged up to use atop one, inadvertently. Said waterers are not easy to find, but now I am PREPARED!
Back to differences:
Quail can FLY, and they love to POP UP, vertical like helicopters, but a lot faster. Chickens flail about the task, and while they have some upward momentum, they go just about as much horizontal as vertical, all things considered. Chickens, when they land somewhere outside of their brooding box (still immature here), or outside whatever penned them in — will act a bit confused. Quail will just keep going. They’re like popcorn, popping because they CAN. (The word is, either house them in something with a LOW ceiling, or something with a high – six feet or two meters more – ceiling. So they don’t hurt themselves.)
If you let them free range, quail will probably NOT come home at night. Plus they are great predator feed. So are chickens, but they stand a better chance at self-defense from smaller predators. I’ve seen where people have made quail tractors, so they can let them forage better – but if you make one, put in a floor of some sort. Due to uneven ground (even discounting burrowing) predators can easily get in, and a small one like a weasel or skunk can have a great dinner at your expense.
Quail don’t roost at night. Or at least they don’t require it. They are not known to roost in trees in the wild, either. Quail and chickens are both diurnal, and are ground feeders.
Quail don’t do nesting boxes. And, if they are going to go broody, it won’t happen until the hen has laid her batch of eggs to nest. Even so, a variety of sources have indicated my best bet for making a second generation is to incubate and hatch out my own quail.
Male maturity is so much MUCH more obvious with chickens than with quail. It turns out that male chickens grow much larger than their hens, while quail males may be smaller than the females – who, after all, have to lay those (to them) ginormous eggs!
I have seen sources that claim that the best ratio of male to female quail for breeding purposes is 1:3 or up to 1:6. Depend on whom I read. Chickens usually do best with a 1:5 and ABOVE ratio – roosters need more hens than do quail. (And, the hens will THANK YOU for that!) In any case, dalliances work the same way in both species.
Quail will start producing eggs between 2-3 months. Chickens – well, my first batch of heritage hens took from birth at the first of May until mid-November to start production. Chicken eggs will start out small, but my quail gave me full-sized (for quail) eggs at the outside – 2 of 3 eggs.
Both chickens and quail enjoy sand baths, which I provide for them at maturity, or when they enter long term housing.
Both like grit to help them digest better, and mature females like calcium supplements they can enjoy ad libitum. Use the baby chick grit and baby chick calcium supplement for the adult quail – I suspect grinding up either of these with your dedicated “coffee” grinder will not be a good idea for said grinder! In any case, I wait about three weeks or so to provide grit.
Don’t house them together. They have different personalities, and it just isn’t a good idea. No intention of experimenting – even though my baby chicks and my adult quail are currently of equivalent sizes. (Even if in the lower photo montage this doesn’t appear to be the case.)